fbpx
Logo For the Integrative Health journal
Clipboard with "Health & Wealth" text, asparagus, and woven mat.

3 Effective & Safe Supplements for Losing Weight – Kickstart that Stubborn Fat

Two men running in a forest, health journal cover

“The greatest wealth is health.” – Virgil

Disclaimer: The content provided here is for informational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or health objectives. The information and opinions expressed here are based on research and are not meant to replace professional medical advice. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

Introduction to A New Weight Loss Journey

When it comes to embarking on a weight loss journey, there are countless supplements on the market promising quick results. However, safety should always be a top priority when selecting these products. After all, what good is weight loss if it comes at the expense of your well-being?

In this article, we will guide you through the world of weight loss supplements and highlight the safest options available. We have carefully handpicked these supplements based on their effectiveness, safety, and customer reviews. Whether you’re looking for natural weight loss supplements, effective options for women, or clinically proven products, our top picks are here to support you in your weight loss goals.

Key Takeaways:

  • Choosing the safest weight loss supplements is crucial for your overall health and well-being.
  • Our top picks have been selected based on their effectiveness, safety, and positive customer reviews.
  • Whether you prefer natural supplements or need specific options for women, we have you covered.
  • Reputable products that are clinically proven can provide added assurance in their safety and efficacy.
  • Stay informed and make the best choices for your weight loss journey to achieve safe and sustainable results.

The Science Behind Safe Weight Loss

In the pursuit of safe weight loss, understanding the scientific principles that underpin it is essential. By gaining insight into the science behind weight loss, individuals can make informed decisions and develop effective strategies to achieve their goals. In this section, we will explore three key aspects: the caloric deficit and energy expenditure, the role of nutrition, and how metabolism affects fat reduction.

Understanding the Caloric Deficit and Energy Expenditure

A caloric deficit is a fundamental concept in weight loss. It occurs when the body expends more energy than it consumes through food. To lose weight, individuals need to create a caloric deficit, which can be achieved through a combination of reduced calorie intake and increased physical activity.

Energy expenditure, on the other hand, refers to the number of calories burned by the body in a day. It consists of three main components:

  1. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): The number of calories the body needs to perform essential functions at rest
  2. Physical Activity: The calories burned through exercise and daily activities
  3. Thermic Effect of Food: The calories required for digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food

By understanding the caloric deficit and energy expenditure, individuals can adjust their diet and exercise routines to promote weight loss effectively.

Nutrition: The Pillar of Weight Loss

Nutrition plays a pivotal role in safe weight loss. It is essential to consume a balanced diet that provides adequate nutrients while creating a caloric deficit. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and healthy fats can support overall health and promote sustainable weight loss.

The quality and composition of food are equally important. Choosing nutrient-dense foods that are low in calories can help individuals feel satisfied while minimizing the risk of nutrient deficiencies. Additionally, practicing portion control and mindful eating can contribute to long-term weight management.

How Metabolism Affects Fat Reduction

Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur within the body to convert food and nutrients into energy. It influences the rate at which the body burns calories and ultimately affects fat reduction. While metabolism is partly determined by genetics, certain factors can influence it:

  • Physical activity: Regular exercise can increase metabolism and promote fat burning.
  • Muscle mass: Muscle tissue burns more calories than fat tissue, so maintaining or increasing muscle mass can support a higher metabolism.
  • Dietary factors: Certain foods, such as those high in fiber and protein, can slightly increase metabolism due to the energy required for digestion and absorption.

Understanding how metabolism influences fat reduction allows individuals to adopt lifestyle habits that optimize weight loss efforts.

Key Factors in Safe Weight Loss

ConceptDescription
Caloric DeficitThe state of consuming fewer calories than the body burns, resulting in weight loss.
Energy ExpenditureThe total number of calories burned by the body, including BMR, physical activity, and the thermic effect of food.
NutritionThe intake of a balanced diet rich in nutrients, while creating a caloric deficit, to support safe and sustainable weight loss.
MetabolismThe chemical processes that convert food into energy, influencing the rate at which the body burns calories and reduces fat.

Compelling Reasons for Natural Weight Loss Supplements

When it comes to achieving weight loss goals, natural weight loss supplements can be a game-changer. These supplements offer a range of benefits that can support healthy and sustainable weight loss. If you’re considering incorporating supplements into your weight loss journey, here are some compelling reasons to choose natural options:

  1. Supports Healthy Weight Loss: Natural weight loss supplements are formulated with ingredients that can aid in the weight loss process. They can help boost metabolism, suppress appetite, and promote fat burning, all of which can contribute to achieving your weight loss goals.
  2. Potential for Fewer Side Effects: Natural supplements are often derived from plants and herbs, making them less likely to cause adverse side effects compared to their synthetic counterparts. This makes them a safer choice for individuals who may be sensitive to certain ingredients or have pre-existing health conditions.
  3. More Sustainable Approach: Natural weight loss supplements promote a more holistic and sustainable approach to weight loss. Rather than relying solely on supplements, they emphasize the importance of a well-rounded lifestyle that includes healthy eating habits and regular exercise. This ensures long-term success and helps avoid the pitfalls of crash diets or quick fixes.

By choosing natural weight loss supplements, you can harness the power of nature to support your weight loss journey. Natural ingredients offer unique benefits that can contribute to a healthier and more balanced approach to achieving your goals.

To illustrate the benefits of natural supplements, take a look at the table below:

Benefits of Natural Weight Loss Supplements
Supports healthy weight loss
Potential for fewer side effects
Promotes sustainable weight loss

With the myriad of choices available on the market, it’s essential to carefully select natural weight loss supplements that are backed by scientific research and reputable brands. Consulting with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian can help guide you in choosing the right supplements for your individual needs and goals.

Types of Weight Loss Supplements and Their Primary Functions

In the world of weight loss supplements, there are various options available to help individuals achieve their goals. Each type of supplement has its own unique set of functions and benefits. In this section, we will explore the different types of weight loss supplements and their primary functions. Understanding these supplements can help you make an informed decision about which one may be right for you.

Thermogenic Fat Burners

Thermogenic fat burners are supplements designed to increase metabolism and stimulate fat burning. They work by raising the body’s core temperature, which in turn leads to a higher calorie burn. These supplements often contain ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, and capsaicin, which have been shown to have thermogenic properties.

Appetite Suppressants

Appetite suppressants are supplements that help reduce cravings and control food intake. They work by increasing feelings of fullness and reducing hunger pangs, making it easier to stick to a calorie-controlled diet. Common ingredients found in appetite suppressants include glucomannan, garcinia cambogia, and 5-HTP.

Fat Blockers

Fat blockers are supplements that aim to inhibit the absorption of dietary fats. They work by binding to the fat molecules in the digestive system, preventing them from being digested and absorbed by the body. This reduces the overall calorie intake from fats. Chitosan and orlistat are commonly used ingredients in fat blockers.

Metabolism Boosters

Metabolism boosters are supplements that help increase the body’s calorie-burning capacity. They work by speeding up the metabolic rate, which in turn increases the amount of energy burned throughout the day. These supplements often contain ingredients such as green tea extract, caffeine, and L-carnitine.

thermogenic fat burners

By understanding the functions of different types of weight loss supplements, you can choose the one that aligns with your specific goals and preferences. It’s important to remember that supplements are not magic pills and should always be used in conjunction with a healthy diet and exercise routine for optimal results.

Safest Supplements for Losing Weight

When it comes to losing weight, choosing the right supplements can make a significant difference in your journey. In this section, we will focus on highlighting the safest supplements for losing weight. These supplements have been carefully selected based on their safety profiles, customer reviews, and effectiveness. Let’s take a closer look at each of these top-rated weight loss supplements:

  1. Carnitine

Carnitine, specifically L-carnitine, is an amino acid derivative essential for fat metabolism in the body. It is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from the amino acids lysine and methionine. Carnitine plays a critical role in energy production by promoting the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane of cells, where they can be oxidized and used as an energy source. This process is vital for heart and brain function, muscle movement, and many other body processes.

Bottle of Vitamatic L-Carnitine 1000mg dietary supplement capsules.

Best Carnitine (Amazon)

Here are some recurring themes regarding the benefits of L-carnitine:

  1. Weight Loss and Fat Metabolism: L-carnitine is often marketed for its potential to aid weight loss by enhancing the body’s ability to burn fat.
  2. Exercise Performance: Supplementation is claimed to boost physical performance, reduce muscle soreness, and speed up recovery from high-intensity exercise.
  3. Heart Health: L-carnitine may benefit heart health by improving blood flow and reducing markers of metabolic stress.
  4. Brain Function: Acetyl L-carnitine, a form of L-carnitine, is noted for its potential benefits in slowing the progression of cognitive impairment and supporting brain health.
  5. Energy Production: By assisting in the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria for energy production, L-carnitine is crucial for maintaining energy levels in the body.

It’s also important to note that while L-carnitine supplements may offer these benefits, the body naturally produces L-carnitine, and it can be obtained from dietary sources such as meat, dairy, and fish. Supplementation may be more beneficial or necessary for certain groups, such as those with specific genetic conditions, older adults, or individuals who do not consume animal products.

Carlyle Chromium Picolinate 1000 mcg supplement bottle.

2. Chronium Picolnate

Chromium picolinate is a nutritional supplement that is a combination of the mineral chromium and picolinic acid. It’s widely researched for its potential effects on various aspects of health, particularly in relation to blood sugar control and metabolism. Here are some of the key themes regarding the benefits of chromium picolinate:

Best Chromium Picolinate

  1. Blood Sugar Control: Chromium picolinate is best known for its potential to improve insulin sensitivity and help control blood sugar levels, making it a topic of interest for managing diabetes and preventing blood sugar spikes.
  2. Weight Management: Some studies suggest that chromium picolinate can aid in weight loss by reducing food cravings and appetite, thereby potentially helping individuals consume fewer calories.
  3. Metabolic Health: By influencing insulin sensitivity, chromium picolinate may have beneficial effects on the metabolism, including aspects like cholesterol levels and overall metabolic syndrome risk factors.
  4. Mental Health: There’s interest in the potential for chromium picolinate to impact mental health, including reducing symptoms of depression and improving mood, possibly through its effects on neurotransmitter activity.
  5. Exercise and Muscle Mass: Although evidence is mixed, some research indicates chromium picolinate could support muscle mass retention and improve exercise performance by influencing energy metabolism.

It’s important to approach supplementation with chromium picolinate cautiously, as the evidence on its benefits can be mixed, and there are considerations regarding optimal dosage and potential side effects. The supplement is generally considered safe when taken in recommended amounts, but as with any supplement, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before starting, especially for individuals with pre-existing health conditions or those taking other medications.

3. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a type of fatty acid found in meat and dairy that is believed to have several health benefits. The research on CLA has highlighted a range of potential benefits, including:

Best CLA (Amazon)

  1. Weight Management: CLA has been studied for its effects on weight loss and body composition. Some studies suggest it may help reduce body fat mass in humans, although the results can vary.
  2. Muscle Mass: It may help improve lean muscle mass, which can be beneficial for body composition and metabolic rate.
  3. Cancer: There is evidence to suggest that CLA might have anticancer properties, potentially reducing the risk of certain types of cancer.
  4. Heart Health: CLA might contribute to heart health by affecting blood lipid levels, although research findings are mixed.
  5. Inflammation and Immune Function: Some studies indicate that CLA can modulate immune response and may have anti-inflammatory effects.
  6. Insulin Resistance: There’s interest in CLA’s potential to improve insulin sensitivity, which could be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome.

However, it’s important to note that while CLA supplements are popular for these potential health benefits, the evidence can be inconsistent, and more research is needed to fully understand its effects. Moreover, the impact of CLA may vary depending on the form and isomer, as well as the individual’s overall diet and lifestyle.

These top-rated weight loss supplements have been recommended by experts and have received positive feedback from users. It’s important to note that while these supplements are considered safe and effective, individual results may vary. Consulting with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement is always advisable, especially if you have any underlying health conditions or are taking medication.

Supplement Main Benefits Common Sources Potential Side Effects Recommended for
L-Carnitine Weight loss, energy production, heart and brain health, exercise recovery Meat, fish, milk, and dairy products Nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, heartburn, diarrhea Vegetarians, older adults, those with genetic disorders affecting carnitine metabolism
Chromium Picolinate Blood sugar control, weight management, improved insulin sensitivity Dietary supplement; not typically found in foods in this form Dizziness, headache, insomnia, mood changes Individuals with diabetes or at risk of metabolic syndrome
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Weight loss, improved body composition, anti-cancer properties Beef, dairy products, and CLA supplements Gastrointestinal issues, fatigue, increased inflammation for some people Individuals looking for weight management, bodybuilders

By incorporating these recommended weight loss supplements into your healthy lifestyle and exercise routine, you can achieve your weight loss goals safely and effectively. Remember, supplements are just one aspect of a comprehensive weight loss plan that should also include a balanced diet and regular physical activity.

Dissecting Popular Ingredients in Safe Weight Loss Supplements

In this section, we will dissect the popular ingredients found in safe weight loss supplements. It’s important to understand the ingredients used in these supplements and how they contribute to weight loss goals. We’ll explore the differences between natural and synthetic ingredients and analyze their safety profiles. Additionally, we’ll delve into the proven benefits of key ingredients such as green tea and CLA, backed by scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness in promoting weight loss.

Natural vs Synthetic Ingredients: What’s Safer?

When it comes to weight loss supplements, understanding the source of the ingredients is crucial. Natural ingredients are derived from plants and other natural sources, while synthetic ingredients are created in a laboratory. Both types have their pros and cons.

Natural ingredients are often preferred due to their perceived safety and minimal side effects. They are generally well-tolerated by the body and may offer additional health benefits. On the other hand, synthetic ingredients are designed to mimic natural compounds or enhance their effects. They can be more potent and targeted but may also carry a higher risk of side effects.

Ultimately, the choice between natural and synthetic ingredients depends on personal preferences, health conditions, and individual goals. It’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional or nutritionist to determine the best approach for your unique needs.

Proven Benefits of Key Ingredients like Green Tea and CLA

Green tea extract is a popular ingredient in weight loss supplements due to its potential fat-burning properties. It contains powerful antioxidants called catechins, which have been shown to stimulate thermogenesis and increase fat oxidation. Green tea extract may also help reduce appetite and improve metabolism, making it a valuable addition to weight loss regimens.

CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) is another widely recognized ingredient in weight loss supplements. It is a naturally occurring fatty acid found in meat and dairy products. CLA has been studied extensively for its potential to reduce body fat, increase lean muscle mass, and improve overall body composition. It may also have anti-inflammatory properties and support cardiovascular health.

Popular IngredientsBenefits
Green Tea Extract
  • Stimulates thermogenesis
  • Increases fat oxidation
  • Reduces appetite
  • Improves metabolism
CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid)
  • Reduces body fat
  • Increases lean muscle mass
  • Improves body composition
  • Has anti-inflammatory properties
  • Supports cardiovascular health

Regulations to Consider: Ensuring Supplement Safety

In order to ensure the safety of weight loss supplements, it is important to understand the regulations that govern their production and distribution. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) plays a crucial role in establishing and enforcing these regulations to safeguard consumer health.

The FDA has specific regulations in place for weight loss supplements to protect consumers from potentially harmful products. These regulations ensure that supplements meet certain standards for safety, quality, and effectiveness. It is essential for consumers to be aware of these regulations and look for supplements that comply with them.

One of the key FDA regulations for weight loss supplements is the requirement for manufacturers to follow good manufacturing practices (GMPs). GMPs outline the quality control measures that must be implemented during the manufacturing process, including proper documentation, testing of ingredients, and ensuring consistent product quality.

Quality assurance is another important aspect of ensuring the safety of weight loss supplements. Manufacturers should conduct regular testing to confirm the potency and purity of their products. This can involve testing for contaminants, verifying label claims, and ensuring that the supplement meets established standards.

By choosing weight loss supplements that comply with FDA regulations and prioritize quality assurance, consumers can have more confidence in the safety and efficacy of the products they use. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen to ensure it is suitable for individual health needs and goals.

To illustrate the importance of regulations in ensuring supplement safety, refer to the table below:

RegulationsImportance
FDA regulations for weight loss supplementsEnsures that weight loss supplements meet safety, quality, and effectiveness standards
Good manufacturing practices (GMPs)Establishes quality control measures for supplement manufacturers
Quality assurance testingVerifies product potency, purity, and adherence to standards

Effective Weight Loss Supplements: Clinically Proven Options

In the quest for effective weight loss, it’s essential to choose supplements that have been clinically proven to support weight loss. These supplements have undergone rigorous testing and analysis to determine their safety and efficacy. In this section, we will examine the evidence behind the claims of these supplements and discuss the importance of third-party testing and quality assurance methods.

Examining Evidence Behind Claims

When it comes to weight loss supplements, it’s important to look beyond marketing claims and advertisements. The evidence behind the claims is crucial in determining the effectiveness of these supplements. Clinical studies and research provide valuable insights into the impact of these supplements on weight loss.

By examining the results of these studies, we can gain a better understanding of the true potential of weight loss supplements. They showcase the effectiveness of the supplements and shed light on their mechanisms of action. It allows us to make informed decisions based on scientific evidence rather than mere marketing tactics.

For example, a study published in the Journal of Obesity demonstrated the effectiveness of a specific supplement in promoting weight loss. The study followed participants over a period of six months and found that those taking the supplement experienced a significant reduction in body weight compared to the control group.

This kind of research helps validate the claims made by weight loss supplements and provides valuable insights into their potential benefits.

Third-Party Testing and Quality Assurance Methods

To ensure the safety and efficacy of weight loss supplements, third-party testing and quality assurance methods play a crucial role. Third-party testing involves independent laboratories or organizations evaluating the supplements to verify their ingredients, potency, and purity.

These tests provide an unbiased assessment of the products and help consumers make more informed choices. They ensure that the supplements meet the necessary standards and regulations, minimizing the risk of contamination or misleading claims. Third-party testing provides an extra layer of assurance for consumers regarding the quality and effectiveness of the supplements they choose.

Quality assurance methods also involve strict manufacturing practices and adherence to guidelines set by regulatory bodies. This ensures that the supplements are produced in a safe and controlled environment, minimizing the risk of impurities or improper dosages.

Overall, third-party testing and quality assurance methods provide consumers with the confidence and assurance that the weight loss supplements they choose are safe, effective, and of high quality.

Integrating Supplements for Safe and Sustainable Weight Loss into Lifestyle

Incorporating supplements into your lifestyle can be an effective way to support safe and sustainable weight loss. By combining the right supplements with a balanced diet and regular exercise, you can optimize your results and achieve your weight loss goals. In this section, we will explore how to integrate supplements for weight loss into your daily routine and personalize their use to match your individual needs and objectives.

Creating a Synergistic Approach with Diet and Exercise

When it comes to weight loss, supplements should not be seen as a standalone solution. Instead, they should be viewed as complementary to a healthy diet and regular exercise. A synergistic approach that combines supplements with proper nutrition and physical activity can enhance your weight loss efforts.

Focus on consuming a well-rounded diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and healthy fats. Pair this with regular exercise, incorporating both cardiovascular exercises to burn calories and strength training to build lean muscle mass. By creating a balanced and active lifestyle, you can create an environment that supports safe and sustainable weight loss.

Personalizing Supplement Use to Match Individual Goals

Every individual is unique, and their weight loss goals may vary. It is essential to personalize supplement use to match your specific needs and objectives. Here are a few factors to consider when integrating supplements into your weight loss journey:

  • Determine your primary weight loss goal: Whether you aim to boost metabolism, suppress appetite, or increase fat burning, understanding your primary goal can help you select the right supplements.
  • Consult with a healthcare professional: Before starting any new supplement regimen, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional who can assess your individual needs and provide personalized recommendations.
  • Read product labels and customer reviews: When choosing supplements, carefully read product labels to identify the ingredients and dosages. Additionally, consider customer reviews to gauge the effectiveness and safety of the supplement.
  • Start with one supplement at a time: To better understand how each supplement affects your body, it is recommended to introduce one supplement at a time. This allows you to assess its impact and make informed decisions about its continued use.
  • Monitor and adjust: Pay attention to how your body responds to the supplements and make necessary adjustments. If you experience any adverse effects, discontinue use and consult with a healthcare professional.

By personalizing supplement use based on your unique goals and needs, you can maximize the benefits while minimizing the risks associated with their consumption.

Integrating supplements for safe and sustainable weight loss into your lifestyle requires a thoughtful approach that combines supplements with a balanced diet and regular exercise. By creating a synergistic environment and personalizing supplement use to match your individual goals, you can optimize your weight loss journey and achieve long-term success.

Conclusion

After exploring the world of weight loss supplements, it becomes evident that there are safe and effective options available to support your weight loss journey. It is crucial to prioritize your health and choose supplements that have been carefully selected based on their safety profiles, customer reviews, and scientific evidence.

When considering weight loss supplements, always look for natural ingredients that have proven benefits, such as green tea and CLA. These natural ingredients have shown promising results in promoting weight loss and can be a beneficial addition to your overall weight loss plan.

However, it is important to remember that weight loss supplements are not a magic solution. They should be integrated into a holistic approach, combining a balanced diet, regular exercise, and a healthy lifestyle. By creating a synergistic approach and personalizing supplement use to match your individual goals, you can optimize your results and support long-term success.

Before starting any weight loss supplement, consult with a healthcare professional to ensure it is appropriate for your specific needs and to avoid any potential interactions with medications or underlying health conditions. By making informed choices and following a comprehensive weight loss plan, you can take steps towards achieving your weight loss goals safely and effectively.

FAQ

What are the safest supplements for losing weight?

The top picks for the safest supplements for losing weight include natural weight loss supplements that have been clinically proven to be safe and effective. These supplements are recommended for healthy and sustainable weight loss.

What is the science behind safe weight loss?

Safe weight loss is achieved through the concept of a caloric deficit, where you consume fewer calories than you burn. Nutrition also plays a crucial role in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. Additionally, metabolism affects fat reduction, and various factors can influence it.

Why should I choose natural weight loss supplements?

Natural weight loss supplements offer several benefits, including the potential for healthy and sustainable weight loss. They are made from natural ingredients and may have fewer side effects compared to synthetic alternatives.

What are the different types of weight loss supplements and their primary functions?

There are several types of weight loss supplements, each with its primary function. Thermogenic fat burners increase metabolism and stimulate fat burning. Appetite suppressants help reduce cravings and control food intake. Fat blockers inhibit the absorption of dietary fats. Metabolism boosters increase the body’s calorie-burning capacity.

Which supplements are considered the safest for losing weight?

The safest supplements for losing weight have been carefully selected based on their safety profiles, customer reviews, and effectiveness. Each supplement provides unique benefits and ingredients to support healthy weight loss.

What are the popular ingredients found in safe weight loss supplements?

Safe weight loss supplements contain a variety of ingredients. It is important to understand the differences between natural and synthetic ingredients and their safety profiles. Some key ingredients, such as green tea and CLA, have been scientifically proven to support weight loss.

What regulations govern weight loss supplements to ensure their safety?

Weight loss supplements are regulated by the FDA, which sets guidelines for their safety and labeling. Quality assurance is crucial in the supplement industry to ensure products meet the highest standards.

Are there any effective weight loss supplements that have been clinically proven?

Yes, there are several weight loss supplements that have been clinically proven to support weight loss. These supplements have undergone studies and research to demonstrate their efficacy. Third-party testing and quality assurance methods further ensure their safety and effectiveness.

How can I integrate supplements for safe and sustainable weight loss into my lifestyle?

To integrate supplements for safe and sustainable weight loss, it is important to create a synergistic approach with a balanced diet and regular exercise. Personalizing supplement use to match individual goals can further optimize results and support long-term success.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *